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Classification, Characteristics And Application of Radio Frequency Identification Technology (RFID)


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With the development of the times, large-scale integrated circuit technology has gradually emerged, and the size of the radio frequency identification system has been greatly reduced, making the radio frequency identification technology enter the stage of practicality and become the most widely used automatic identification technology at present. Today let's talk about the classification of radio frequency identification technology (RFID).

customized radio frequency identification

In general, radio frequency identification technology is mainly classified in the following four ways:

1. Working frequency

Depending on the operating frequency, it can be divided into low frequency and high frequency systems
①Low-frequency system generally refers to the system whose working frequency is less than 30MHz. It is characterized by low cost of radio frequency card, less data stored in the tag, and shorter reading distance (passive situation, typical reading distance is 10cm), radio frequency card Various shapes (card-shaped, ring-shaped, button-shaped, pen-shaped), reading antenna directionality is not strong, etc. Low-frequency systems are mostly used in short-range, low-cost applications, such as most access control, animal monitoring, and cargo tracking.
② High frequency system generally refers to the system whose operating frequency is greater than 400MHz. The basic characteristics of high-frequency systems are that the cost of radio frequency cards and readers is relatively high, the amount of data stored in the card is large, the reading distance is long (up to 1m-19m), the performance of adapting to high-speed movement of objects is good, and the shape is generally card-shaped. , reading antenna and radio frequency card antenna have strong directivity. High-frequency systems are mostly used in occasions that require a long read-write distance and high read-write speed, such as train monitoring, highway toll and other systems.

2. RF card

According to different radio frequency cards, it can be divided into three types: read-write (RW) cards, write-once-read-many (WORM) cards and read-only (RO) cards. RW cards are generally more expensive than WORM and RK, such as telephone cards, signal cards, etc. In general, the time spent on rewriting data is much longer than the time spent on reading data (normally, the time spent on rewriting is s level, and the time spent on reading is ms level). The WORM card is a card that can be written by the user once, and the data cannot be changed after writing, and it is cheaper than RW. The RO card has a unique one, which cannot be changed one by one to ensure safety. RO cards are the cheapest.

3. Active and passive RF card

RF cards can be divided into two types: active and passive. The active radio frequency card uses the energy of the battery inside the card, and the recognition distance is longer, up to more than ten meters, but its life is limited (3~10 years) and the price is relatively high; the passive radio frequency card does not contain a battery, and it uses The electromagnetic waves emitted by the reader provide energy, light in weight, small in size, long in life, and very cheap, but its emission distance is limited, generally tens of cm, and requires a large emission power of the reader.

4. Modulation method

According to the different modulation methods, it can also be divided into active type and passive type. ①Active RF card uses its own RF energy to actively send data to the reader. ②Passive radio frequency card transmits data by means of modulation and scattering. It must use the carrier wave of the reader to modulate its own signal, suitable for use in access control or traffic applications. Because the reader can ensure that only the radio frequency cards within a certain range are activated.

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